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The red of autumn leaves is produced by pigments called anthocyanins. My goodness, this is an elaborate post. The classic down insulated vest with high-loft baffles now sports an updated fit with sleek quilt lines. ZIP Codes will ship for free with value shipping. So that the maximum number of colors can be accurately reproduced on your computer screen, each color has been given a code number, or sRGB , which tells your computer the intensity of the red, green and blue components of that color.

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Anthocyanins temporarily color the edges of some of the very young leaves as they unfold from the buds in early spring. They also give the familiar color to such common fruits as cranberries , red apples , blueberries , cherries , raspberries , and plums.

These same pigments often combine with the carotenoids' colors to create the deeper orange, fiery reds, and bronzes typical of many hardwood species. See Autumn leaf color. Oxygenated blood is red due to the presence of oxygenated hemoglobin that contains iron molecules, with the iron components reflecting red light. Plants like apples , strawberries , cherries , tomatoes , peppers , and pomegranates are often colored by forms of carotenoids , red pigments that also assist photosynthesis. Red blood cell agar.

Blood appears red due to the iron molecules in blood cells. A red setter or Irish setter. Red hair appears in people with two copies of a recessive gene on chromosome 16 which causes a mutation in the MC1R protein. Red hair varies from a deep burgundy through burnt orange to bright copper. It is characterized by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin which also accounts for the red color of the lips and relatively low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin.

The term redhead originally redd hede [ citation needed ] has been in use since at least Cultural reactions have varied from ridicule to admiration; many common stereotypes exist regarding redheads and they are often portrayed as fiery-tempered. Red is associated with dominance in a number of animal species. Inside cave 13B at Pinnacle Point , an archeological site found on the coast of South Africa, paleoanthropologists in found evidence that, between , and 40, years ago, Late Stone Age people were scraping and grinding ochre , a clay colored red by iron oxide , probably with the intention of using it to color their bodies.

Red hematite powder was also found scattered around the remains at a grave site in a Zhoukoudian cave complex near Beijing. The site has evidence of habitation as early as , years ago. The hematite might have been used to symbolize blood in an offering to the dead. Red, black and white were the first colors used by artists in the Upper Paleolithic age, probably because natural pigments such as red ochre and iron oxide were readily available where early people lived.

Madder , a plant whose root could be made into a red dye, grew widely in Europe, Africa and Asia. A red dye called Kermes was made beginning in the Neolithic Period by drying and then crushing the bodies of the females of a tiny scale insect in the genus Kermes , primarily Kermes vermilio. The insects live on the sap of certain trees, especially Kermes oak trees near the Mediterranean region.

Jars of kermes have been found in a Neolithic cave-burial at Adaoutse, Bouches-du-Rhône. A different variety of dye was made from Porphyrophora hamelii Armenian cochineal scale insects that lived on the roots and stems of certain herbs. It was mentioned in texts as early as the 8th century BC, and it was used by the ancient Assyrians and Persians. Kermes is also mentioned in the Bible. In the Book of Exodus , God instructs Moses to have the Israelites bring him an offering including cloth "of blue, and purple, and scarlet.

In ancient Egypt, red was associated with life, health, and victory. Egyptians would color themselves with red ochre during celebrations. But, like many colors, it also had a negative association, with heat, destruction and evil.

A prayer to god Isis states: Red ochre was widely used as a pigment for wall paintings, particularly as the skin color of men. An ivory painter's palette found inside the tomb of King Tutankhamun had small compartments with pigments of red ochre and five other colors. The Egyptians used the root of the rubia , or madder plant, to make a dye, later known as alizarin , and also used it as a pigment, which became known as madder lake , alizarin or alizarin crimson.

In Ancient China, artisans were making red and black painted pottery as early as the Yangshao Culture period — BC. A red-painted wooden bowl was found at a Neolithic site in Yuyao, Zhejiang. Other red-painted ceremonial objects have been found at other sites dating to the Spring and Autumn period — BC.

During the Han dynasty BC— AD Chinese craftsmen made a red pigment, lead tetroxide , which they called ch-ien tan , by heating lead white pigment. Like the Egyptians, they made a red dye from the madder plant to color silk fabric for gowns and used pigments colored with madder to make red lacquerware. Red lead or Lead tetroxide pigment was widely used as the red in Persian and Indian miniature paintings as well as in European art, where it was called minium.

In India, the rubia plant has been used to make dye since ancient times. A piece of cotton dyed with rubia dated to the third millennium BC was found at an archaeological site at Mohenjo-daro.

The early inhabitants of America had their own vivid crimson dye , made from the cochineal , an insect of the same family as the Kermes of Europe and the Middle East, which feeds on the Opuntia , or prickly pear cactus plant.

Red-dyed textiles from the Paracas culture — BC have been found in tombs in Peru. Red also featured in the burials of royalty in the Maya city-states. Image of a bison from the cave of Altamira in Spain, painted with red ochre between 15, and In ancient Greece and the Minoan civilization of ancient Crete , red was widely used in murals and in the polychrome decoration of temples and palaces.

The Greeks began using red lead as a pigment. In Ancient Rome , Tyrian purple was the color of the Emperor, but red had an important religious symbolism. Romans wore togas with red stripes on holidays, and the bride at a wedding wore a red shawl, called a flammeum.

Red was also the color associated with army; Roman soldiers wore red tunics, and officers wore a cloak called a paludamentum which, depending upon the quality of the dye, could be crimson, scarlet or purple. In Roman mythology red is associated with the god of war, Mars. A Roman general receiving a triumph had his entire body painted red in honor of his achievement. The Romans liked bright colors, and many Roman villas were decorated with vivid red murals.

The pigment used for many of the murals was called vermilion , and it came from the mineral cinnabar , a common ore of mercury. It was one of the finest reds of ancient times — the paintings have retained their brightness for more than twenty centuries. The source of cinnabar for the Romans was a group of mines near Almadén , southwest of Madrid , in Spain.

Working in the mines was extremely dangerous, since mercury is highly toxic; the miners were slaves or prisoners, and being sent to the cinnabar mines was a virtual death sentence. Etruscan dancers in the Tomb of the Triclinium BC. It was buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD and preserved. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, red was adopted as a color of majesty and authority by the Byzantine Empire , the princes of Europe, and the Roman Catholic Church.

It also played an important part in the rituals of the Catholic Church — it symbolized the blood of Christ and the Christian martyrs — and it associated the power of the kings with the sacred rituals of the Church.

Red was the color of the banner of the Byzantine emperors. In Western Europe, Emperor Charlemagne painted his palace red as a very visible symbol of his authority, and wore red shoes at his coronation. When Abbe Suger rebuilt Saint Denis Basilica outside Paris in the early 12th century, he added stained glass windows colored blue cobalt glass and red glass tinted with copper. Together they flooded the basilica with a mystical light.

Soon stained glass windows were being added to cathedrals all across France, England and Germany. In medieval painting red was used to attract attention to the most important figures; both Christ and the Virgin Mary were commonly painted wearing red mantles. Red clothing was a sign of status and wealth. It was worn not only by cardinals and princes, but also by merchants, artisans and townspeople, particularly on holidays or special occasions.

Red dye for the clothing of ordinary people was made from the roots of the rubia tinctorum , the madder plant. This color leaned toward brick-red, and faded easily in the sun or during washing.

The wealthy and aristocrats wore scarlet clothing dyed with kermes , or carmine , made from the carminic acid in tiny female scale insects , which lived on the leaves of oak trees in Eastern Europe and around the Mediterranean.

The insects were gathered, dried, crushed, and boiled with different ingredients in a long and complicated process, which produced a brilliant scarlet.

Brazilin was another popular red dye in the Middle Ages. It came from the sapanwood tree, which grew in India, Malaysia and Sri Lanka. A similar tree, brazilwood , grew on the coast of South America. The red wood was ground into sawdust and mixed with an alkaline solution to make dye and pigment. It became one of the most profitable exports from the New World , and gave its name to the nation of Brazil. Interior of a Byzantine church, the Cathedral of Monreale in Sicily , with a mosaic portrait of Christ dressed in red 12th century.

The Annunciation scene in stained glass, from the Saint Denis Basilica early 12th century. Abbe Suger himself, the builder of the church, is pictured at the feet of the Virgin Mary , at right. She wears red with a green cloak. King Richard II of England s dressed in red. Pope Innocent IV —10 dressed in red, the symbol of the blood of Christ. Red has been an important color in Chinese culture, religion, industry, fashion and court ritual since ancient times.

Silk was woven and dyed as early as the Han Dynasty 25— BC. China had a monopoly on the manufacture of silk until the 6th century AD, when it was introduced into the Byzantine Empire. In the 12th century, it was introduced into Europe. At the time of the Han Dynasty, Chinese red was a light red, but during the Tang dynasty new dyes and pigments were discovered.

The Chinese used several different plants to make red dyes, including the flowers of the safflour Carthamus tinctorius , the thorns and stems of a variety of sorghum plant called Kao-liang, and the wood of the sappanwood tree. For pigments, they used cinnabar , which produced the famous vermillion or "Chinese red" of Chinese lacquerware. Red played an important role in Chinese philosophy.

It was believed that the world was composed of five elements: Red was associated with fire. Each Emperor chose the color that his fortune-tellers believed would bring the most prosperity and good fortune to his reign. During the Zhou, Han, Jin, Song and Ming Dynasties, red was considered a noble color, and it was featured in all court ceremonies, from coronations to sacrificial offerings, and weddings.

Red was also a badge of rank. During the Song dynasty — , officials of the top three ranks wore purple clothes; those of the fourth and fifth wore bright red; those of the sixth and seventh wore green; and the eighth and ninth wore blue. Red was the color worn by the royal guards of honor, and the color of the carriages of the imperial family. When the imperial family traveled, their servants and accompanying officials carried red and purple umbrellas.

Of an official who had talent and ambition, it was said "he is so red he becomes purple. Red was also featured in Chinese Imperial architecture. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, gates of palaces were usually painted red, and nobles often painted their entire mansion red. One of the most famous works of Chinese literature, A Dream of Red Mansions by Cao Xueqin —63 , was about the lives of noble women who passed their lives out of public sight within the walls of such mansions.

In later dynasties red was reserved for the walls of temples and imperial residences. When the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty conquered the Ming and took over the Forbidden City and Imperial Palace in Beijing, all the walls, gates, beams and pillars were painted in red and gold. Red is not often used in traditional Chinese paintings, which are usually black ink on white paper with a little green sometimes added for trees or plants; but the round or square seals which contain the name of the artist are traditionally red.

Walls, columns, windows and gates of palaces and temples were traditionally painted red. A red lacquerware tray with engraved gold foil decoration 12—13th century , from the Song dynasty. The red coach of the Ming dynasty 's Xuande Emperor — , pulled by elephants. Dancer of the Tang dynasty , from the Astana Tombs. In Renaissance painting, red was used to draw the attention of the viewer; it was often used as the color of the cloak or costume of Christ , the Virgin Mary , or another central figure.

In Venice , Titian was the master of fine reds, particularly vermilion ; he used many layers of pigment mixed with a semi-transparent glaze, which let the light pass through, to create a more luminous color. During the Renaissance trade routes were opened to the New World, to Asia and the Middle East, and new varieties of red pigment and dye were imported into Europe, usually through Venice , Genoa or Seville , and Marseille.

Venice was the major depot importing and manufacturing pigments for artists and dyers from the end of the 15th century; the catalog of a Venetian Vendecolori , or pigment seller, from included vermilion and kermes. There were guilds of dyers who specialized in red in Venice and other large Europeans cities. The Rubia plant was used to make the most common dye; it produced an orange-red or brick red color used to dye the clothes of merchants and artisans.

For the wealthy, the dye used was kermes, made from a tiny scale insect which fed on the branches and leaves of the oak tree. For those with even more money there was Polish Cochineal ; also known as Kermes vermilio or "Blood of Saint John", which was made from a related insect, the Margodes polonicus. It made a more vivid red than ordinary Kermes. The finest and most expensive variety of red made from insects was the "Kermes" of Armenia Armenian cochineal , also known as Persian kirmiz , made by collecting and crushing Porphyophora hamelii , an insect which lived on the roots and stems of certain grasses.

The pigment and dye merchants of Venice imported and sold all of these products and also manufactured their own color, called Venetian red , which was considered the most expensive and finest red in Europe. Its secret ingredient was arsenic , which brightened the color. But early in the 16th century, a brilliant new red appeared in Europe. The cochineal in Mexico was closely related to the Kermes varieties of Europe, but unlike European Kermes, it could be harvested several times a year, and it was ten times stronger than the Kermes of Poland.

It worked particularly well on silk, satin and other luxury textiles. In Cortes sent the first shipment to Spain. Soon cochineal began to arrive in European ports aboard convoys of Spanish galleons. At first the guilds of dyers in Venice and other cities banned cochineal to protect their local products, but the superior quality of cochineal dye made it impossible to resist.

By the beginning of the 17th century it was the preferred luxury red for the clothing of cardinals, bankers, courtesans and aristocrats. The painters of the early Renaissance used two traditional lake pigments, made from mixing dye with either chalk or alum , kermes lake, made from kermes insects, and madder lake , made from the rubia tinctorum plant. With the arrival of cochineal, they had a third, carmine , which made a very fine crimson, though it had a tendency to change color if not used carefully.

Later it was used by Thomas Gainsborough , Seurat and J. The Assumption , by Titian — The figures of God, the Virgin Mary and two apostles are highlighted by their vermilion red costumes. The young Queen Elizabeth I here in about liked to wear bright reds, before she adopted the more sober image of the "Virgin Queen".

Her satin gown was probably dyed with kermes. In Renaissance Flanders , people of all social classes wore red at celebrations. The dye came from the root of the madder plant, which tended toward orange. Woman with a wine glass , by Johannes Vermeer — Vermeer used different shades and tints of vermilion to paint the red skirt, then glazed it with madder lake to make a more luminous color.

Dyed feather headdress from the Aztec people of Mexico and Central America. For red they used cochineal , a brilliant scarlet dye made from insects. A native of Central America collecting cochineal insects from a cactus to make red dye From the 16th until the 19th century, it was a highly profitable export from Spanish Mexico to Europe.

Rembrandt used carmine lake, made of cochineal , to paint the skirt of the bride in the painting known as The Jewish bride — During the French Revolution , the Jacobins and other more radical parties adopted the red flag; it was taken from red flags hoisted by the French government to declare a state of siege or emergency.

Many of them wore a red Phrygian cap , or liberty cap, modeled after the caps worn by freed slaves in Ancient Rome. During the height of the Reign of Terror , Women wearing red caps gathered around the guillotine to celebrate each execution.

They were called the "Furies of the guillotine". The guillotines used during the Reign of Terror in and were painted red, or made of red wood. During the Reign of Terror a statue of a woman titled liberty, painted red, was placed in the square in front of the guillotine. After the end of the Reign of Terror, France went back to the blue, white and red tricolor, whose red was taken from the red and blue colors of the city of Paris, and was the traditional color of Saint Denis , the Christian martyr and patron saint of Paris.

In the midth century, red became the color of a new political and social movement, socialism. It became the most common banner of the worker's movement, of the French Revolution of , of the Paris Commune in , and of socialist parties across Europe. As the Industrial Revolution spread across Europe, chemists and manufacturers sought new red dyes that could be used for large-scale manufacture of textiles. One popular color imported into Europe from Turkey and India in the 18th and early 19th century was Turkey red , known in France as rouge d'Adrinople.

Beginning in the s, this bright red color was used to dye or print cotton textiles in England, the Netherlands and France. Turkey red used madder as the colorant, but the process was longer and more complicated, involving multiple soaking of the fabrics in lye, olive oil, sheep's dung, and other ingredients.

The fabric was more expensive but resulted in a fine bright and lasting red, similar to carmine , perfectly suited to cotton. In 19th-century America, it was widely used in making the traditional patchwork quilt. In , the French chemist Pierre-Jean Robiquet discovered the organic compound alizarin , the powerful coloring ingredient of the madder root, the most popular red dye of the time. In , German chemists Carl Graebe and Liebermann were able to synthesize alizarin, and to produce it from coal tar.

The synthetic red was cheaper and more lasting than the natural dye, and the plantation of madder in Europe and import of cochineal from Latin America soon almost completely ceased. The 19th century also saw the use of red in art to create specific emotions, not just to imitate nature. These studies were avidly followed by artists such as Vincent van Gogh. The hall is blood red and pale yellow, with a green billiard table in the center, and four lamps of lemon yellow, with rays of orange and green.

Everywhere it is a battle and antithesis of the most different reds and greens. A Phrygian cap , or liberty cap, was worn by the supporters of the French Revolution of During the Reign of Terror during the later French Revolution, the "Furies of the Guillotine" cheered on each execution.

The Night Cafe , , by Vincent van Gogh , used red and green to express what Van Gogh called "the terrible human passions. In the 20th century, red was the color of Revolution; it was the color of the Bolshevik Revolution in and of the Chinese Revolution of , and later of the Cultural Revolution.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, the German chemical industry invented two new synthetic red pigments: The French painter Henri Matisse — was one of the first prominent painters to use the new cadmium red.

He even tried, without success, to persuade the older and more traditional Renoir , his neighbor in the south of France, to switch from vermilion to cadmium red. Matisse was also one of the first 20th-century artists to make color the central element of the painting, chosen to evoke emotions.

He wrote, "My choice of colors is not based on scientific theory; it is based on observation, upon feelings, upon the real nature of each experience I just try to find a color which corresponds to my feelings. Later in the century, the American artist Mark Rothko —70 also used red, in even simpler form, in blocks of dark, somber color on large canvases, to inspire deep emotions. Rothko observed that color was "only an instrument;" his interest was "in expressing human emotions tragedy, ecstasy, doom, and so on.

Rothko also began using the new synthetic pigments, but not always with happy results. In he donated to Harvard University a series of large murals of the Passion of Christ whose predominant colors were dark pink and deep crimson. He mixed mostly traditional colors to make the pink and crimson; synthetic ultramarine, cerulean blue, and titanium white, but he also used two new organic reds, Naphtol and Lithol.

The Naphtol did well, but the Lithol slowly changed color when exposed to light. Within five years the deep pinks and reds had begun to turn light blue, and by the paintings were ruined and had to be taken down. Bathing of a Red Horse , by the Russian symbolist painter Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin , used a bright red horse to surprise and shock viewers. It provoked a furious discussion among Russian critics. Four Darks in Red by Mark Rothko The somber dark reds were chosen to inspire deep human emotions.

Surveys show that red is the color most associated with courage. The banner of the Christian soldiers in the First Crusade was a red cross on a white field, the St. According to Christian tradition, Saint George was a Roman soldier who was a member of the guards of the Emperor Diocletian , who refused to renounce his Christian faith and was martyred. In , Mary, Queen of Scots , accused of treason against Queen Elizabeth I , wore a red shirt at her execution, to proclaim that she was an innocent martyr.

It was widely reported in the British press as an example of courage in the face of overwhelming odds and became a British military legend. In the 19th-century novel The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane , a story about the American Civil War , the red badge was the blood from a wound, by which a soldier could prove his courage. Saint Julia wears red, the traditional color of Christian martyrs. Roman Catholic Popes wear red as the symbol of the blood of Christ.

Saint George and the Dragon , by Paolo Uccello — He wears the Saint George's Cross as a cape, which was also the banner of Milan.

The name was given by the British press as a symbol of courage against the odds. The red poppy flower is worn on Remembrance Day in Commonwealth countries to honor soldiers who died in the First World War.

Red is the color most commonly associated with love, followed at a great distance by pink. Both the Greeks and the Hebrews considered red a symbol of love as well as sacrifice.

The Roman de la Rose , the Romance of the Rose, a thirteenth-century French poem, was one of the most popular works of literature of the Middle Ages.

It was the allegorical search by the author for a red rose in an enclosed garden, symbolizing the woman he loved, and was a description of love in all of its aspects. Saint Valentine , a Roman Catholic Bishop or priest who was martyred in about AD, seems to have had no known connection with romantic love, but the day of his martyrdom on the Roman Catholic calendar, Saint Valentine's Day February 14 , became, in the 14th century, an occasion for lovers to send messages to each other.

In recent years the celebration of Saint Valentine' s day has spread beyond Christian countries to Japan and China and other parts of the world. In Saudi Arabia , in and , religious police banned the sale of all Valentine's Day items, telling shop workers to remove any red items, as the day is considered a Christian holiday. The Codex Manesse , a 14th-century collection of love songs. Red roses were symbol of courtly love.

Fifteenth-century Illustration from the Roman de la Rose , a thirteenth-century French poem about a search for a red rose symbolizing the poet's love. A valentine from The tradition of sending messages of love on February 14, Valentine's Day , dates back to the 14th century.

Red is the color most commonly associated with joy and well being. A red carpet is often used to welcome distinguished guests. Red is also the traditional color of seats in opera houses and theaters. Scarlet academic gowns are worn by new Doctors of Philosophy at degree ceremonies at Oxford University and other schools. In China, it is considered the color of good fortune and prosperity, and it is the color traditionally worn by brides. In Christian countries, it is the color traditionally worn at Christmas by Santa Claus , because in the 4th century the historic Saint Nicholas was the Greek Christian Bishop of Myra , in modern-day Turkey, and bishops then dressed in red.

Scarlet academic gowns are worn by new Doctors of Philosophy at a degree ceremony at Oxford University. In China, red is the color of happiness and celebration. The Lantern Festival in Shanghai.

Santa Claus traditionally wears red, because the original Saint Nicholas was a bishop of the Greek Christian church in the 4th century. While red is the color most associated with love, it also the color most frequently associated with hatred, anger, aggression and war. People who are angry are said to " see red. In ancient Rome , red was the color of Mars , the god of war —the planet Mars was named for him because of its red color.

Red is the traditional color of warning and danger. In the Middle Ages, a red flag announced that the defenders of a town or castle would fight to defend it, and a red flag hoisted by a warship meant they would show no mercy to their enemy. Several studies have indicated that red carries the strongest reaction of all the colors, with the level of reaction decreasing gradually with the colors orange, yellow, and white, respectively.

In fact, teachers at a primary school in the UK have been told not to mark children's work in red ink because it encourages a "negative approach". Red is the international color of stop signs and stop lights on highways and intersections. It was standardized as the international color at the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals of It was chosen partly because red is the brightest color in daytime next to orange , though it is less visible at twilight, when green is the most visible color.

Red also stands out more clearly against a cool natural backdrop of blue sky, green trees or gray buildings. But it was mostly chosen as the color for stoplights and stop signs because of its universal association with danger and warning.

The standard international stop sign, following the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals of Red is the color of a severe terrorist threat level in the United States, under the Homeland Security Advisory System. Red is the color of a UK Railway "Home" signal; the white stripe helps recognition against dark backgrounds. Red is the color that most attracts attention. Surveys show it is the color most frequently associated with visibility, proximity, and extroverts. Red is used in modern fashion much as it was used in Medieval painting; to attract the eyes of the viewer to the person who is supposed to be the center of attention.

People wearing red seem to be closer than those dressed in other colors, even if they are actually the same distance away. It is also commonly worn by lifeguards and others whose job requires them to be easily found. Because red attracts attention, it is frequently used in advertising, though studies show that people are less likely to read something printed in red because they know it is advertising, and because it is more difficult visually to read than black and white text.

Red by a large margin is the color most commonly associated with seduction, sexuality, eroticism and immorality, possibly because of its close connection with passion and with danger. Red was long seen as having a dark side, particularly in Christian theology. It was associated with sexual passion, anger, sin, and the devil.

Babylon the Great, the Mother of Harlots and of all the abominations of the earth: And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. In , Irving Berlin wrote a song, At the Devil's Ball , and the devil in red appeared more often in cartoons and movies than in religious art.

In 17th-century New England, red was associated with adultery. In the novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne , The Scarlet Letter , set in a Puritan New England community, a woman is punished for adultery with ostracism, her sin represented by a red letter 'A' sewn onto her clothes. Red is still commonly associated with prostitution.

Prostitutes in many cities were required to wear red to announce their profession, and houses of prostitution displayed a red light. Beginning in the early 20th century, houses of prostitution were allowed only in certain specified neighborhoods, which became known as red-light districts. Large red-light districts are found today in Bangkok and Amsterdam. In Roman Catholicism , red represents wrath, one of the seven deadly sins.

In both Christian and Hebrew tradition, red is also sometimes associated with murder or guilt, with "having blood on one's hands", or "being caught red-handed. The Whore of Babylon , depicted in a 14th-century French illuminated manuscript. The woman appears attractive, but is wearing red under her blue garment. The red-light district in Amsterdam Red lipstick has been worn by women as a cosmetic since ancient times. In China, red simplified Chinese: It carries a largely positive connotation, being associated with courage, loyalty, honor, success, fortune, fertility, happiness, passion, and summer.

Special red packets simplified Chinese: On the more negative side, obituaries are traditionally written in red ink, and to write someone's name in red signals either cutting them out of one's life, or that they have died.

In Japan, red is a traditional color for a heroic figure. In Central Africa, Ndembu warriors rub themselves with red paint during celebrations. Since their culture sees the color as a symbol of life and health, sick people are also painted with it.

Like most Central African cultures, the Ndembu see red as ambivalent, better than black but not as good as white. The early Ottoman Turks led by the first Ottoman Sultan, Osman I , carried red banners symbolizing sovereignty, Ghazis and Sufism , until, according to legend, he saw a new red flag in his dream inlaid with a crescent. In many Asian countries, red is the traditional color for a wedding dress today, symbolizing joy and good fortune.

The bride at a traditional Chinese wedding dresses in red, the color of happiness and good fortune. A red wedding kimono, or uchikake , from Japan. Brides in Japan can wear either a white kimono or bright colors. In India and Pakistan, brides traditionally have their hands and feet decorated with red henna. A Shinto torii at Itsukushima , Japan. Buddhist monks in Tibet. In Hinduism , red is associated with Lakshmi , the goddess of wealth and embodiment of beauty.

Red flags in a celebration of Muharram in Iran. The red military uniform was adopted by the English Parliament's New Model Army in , and was still worn as a dress uniform by the British Army until the outbreak of the First World War in August Ordinary soldiers wore red coats dyed with madder , while officers wore scarlet coats dyed with the more expensive cochineal. In the modern British army, scarlet is still worn by the Foot Guards , the Life Guards , and by some regimental bands or drummers for ceremonial purposes.

Officers and NCOs of those regiments which previously wore red retain scarlet as the color of their "mess" or formal evening jackets. The Royal Gibraltar Regiment has a scarlet tunic in its winter dress.

Scarlet is worn for some full dress, military band or mess uniforms in the modern armies of a number of the countries that made up the former British Empire. The musicians of the United States Marine Corps Band wear red, following an 18th-century military tradition that the uniforms of band members are the reverse of the uniforms of the other soldiers in their unit.

Since the US Marine uniform is blue with red facings, the band wears the reverse. The uniform was adapted from the tunic of the British Army. Cadets at the Royal Military College of Canada also wear red dress uniforms. The Brazilian Marine Corps wears a red dress uniform. The scarlet uniform of the National Guards Unit of Bulgaria. Officer of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Soldiers of the Rajput Regiment of the Indian Army. The first known team sport to feature red uniforms was chariot racing during the late Roman Empire.

The earliest races were between two chariots, one driver wearing red, the other white. Later, the number of teams was increased to four, including drivers in light green and sky blue. Twenty-five races were run in a day, with a total of one hundred chariots participating.

Today many sports teams throughout the world feature red on their uniforms. Along with blue , red is the most commonly used non-white color in sports. Numerous national sports teams wear red, often through association with their national flags. A few of these teams feature the color as part of their nickname such as Spain with their association football soccer national team nicknamed La Furia Roja or "The Red Fury" and Belgium whose football team bears the nickname Rode Duivels or "Red Devils".

In club association football soccer , red is a commonly used color throughout the world. A number of teams' nicknames feature the color. A red penalty card is issued to a player who commits a serious infraction: As recent trends have proven, the right pair of sneakers can take you way beyond the gym.

Ballet flats not your thing? Also known as a Canadian tuxedo, the easiest trick to rocking double denim without looking like you got lost on the way to the cattle ranch: Pair pieces of varying washes together, such as a light denim shirt with dark denim jeans, or a dark denim jacket with a light-wash pair of denim shorts. In fact, matching all your accessories perfectly can make you look dated and matronly, whereas mixing things up looks fresh and modern, and adds interest to an outfit.

As recent sportif trends have showcased, a well-fitting pair of sweatpants can actually look very cool when paired with things like peep-toe booties or heels, and a structured blazer.

Wearing an emerald green silk blouse? Actually, you should never put a garment on immediately after ironing, as this can actually cause new wrinkles to form.

Instead, let it sit for five minutes to set the press. A modern trick to looking like the most effortlessly stylish girl on the street: Pair dressy bottoms like a beaded skirt, or sequin pants with casual staples like a white shirt, a gray crew-neck sweatshirt, or a black blazer. Lucite heels have a bad reputation for being common stripper fare, but several designers have embraced the clear heel mentality to create interesting shoes.

The trick to look chic, not cheap? Cheaper clothing typically runs way bigger, making it common for a woman to wear, say, a size large pants at Forever 21, but still be a size 2 in Stella McCartney. While some are fairly casual, like oversized leather clutches, others are dressy i. Just make sure the skirt is paired with chic staples and tights in the winter. For example, how chic does it look when you wear black jeans, a black overcoat, and your trusty brown Chelsea boots?

Or a brown leather skirt with a black turtleneck and black tights? Because faux stones are hard to spot to the untrained eye. Most closet experts will say the opposite: Line shoes up on the floor of your closet, or on shelves if you have room.

Sandals and tights also work! The best way to store fashion jewelry, including Sterling Silver, is in Ziploc bags.

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